↑Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott (1991) Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada., Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p.
↑ 3.03.1Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman (1973) Freshwater fishes of Canada., Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966.
↑Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr (1991) A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p.