Plantilya:Infobox carbon

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clear (diamond) & black (graphite)

Spectral lines of Carbon
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan carbon, C, 6
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en
Element category wala puthaw
Group, period, block 142, p
Standard atomic weight 12.011(1)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p2
2, 4
Electron shells of carbon (2, 4)
Discovery Egyptians and Sumerians[1] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[2] (1789)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) amorphous:[3] 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
Sublimation point 3915 K, 3642 °C, 6588 °F
Triple point 4600 K (4327°C), 10800[4][5] kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J·mol−1·K−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3[6], 2, 1[7], 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[8]
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Crystal structure diamond
Carbon has a diamond crystal structure

(diamond, clear)
simple hexagonal
Carbon has a Simple Hexagonal crystal structure

(graphite, black)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[9]
Thermal conductivity 900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond)[10] µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
Young's modulus 1050 (diamond)[10] GPa
Shear modulus 478 (diamond)[10] GPa
Bulk modulus 442 (diamond)[10] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.1 (diamond)[10]
Mohs hardness 10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS registry number 7440-44-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of carbon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP


11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 14N
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