Plantilya:Infobox germanium

Gikan sa Wikipedia, ang gawasnong ensiklopedya
Germanium
32Ge
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Appearance
grayish-white
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2x3 cm) polycrystalline block of Ge with uneven cleaved surfaces
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan germanium, Ge, 32
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en
Plantilya:Respell
Element category metalloid
Group, period, block 144, p
Standard atomic weight 72.63(1) 
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
2, 8, 18, 4
Electron shells of germanium (2, 8, 18, 4)
History
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery Clemens Winkler (1886)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 5.323 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.60 g·cm−3
Melting point 1211.40 K, 938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F
Boiling point 3106 K, 2833 °C, 5131 °F
Heat of fusion 36.94 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 334 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.01 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 762 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1537.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3302.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond cubic
Germanium has a diamond cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 1 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5400 m·s−1
Young's modulus 103[2] GPa
Shear modulus 41[2] GPa
Bulk modulus 75[2] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26[2]
Mohs hardness 6.0
CAS registry number 7440-56-4
Band gap energy at 300 K 0.67 eV
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of germanium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 2.039 76Se
t  h  u
· r

Plantilya:Template reference list

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Properties of Germanium", Ioffe Institute.