Plantilya:Infobox scandium

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Scandium
21Sc
-

Sc

Y
calciumscandiumtitanium
Appearance
silvery white
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan scandium, Sc, 21
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en Plantilya:Respell
Element category puthaw nga transisyon
Group, period, block 34, d
Standard atomic weight 44.955912(6)
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
2, 8, 9, 2
Electron shells of scandium (2, 8, 9, 2)
History
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
First isolation Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 2.985 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 2.80 g·cm−3
Melting point 1814 K, 1541 °C, 2806 °F
Boiling point 3109 K, 2836 °C, 5136 °F
Heat of fusion 14.1 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 332.7 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1645 1804 (2006) (2266) (2613) (3101)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2[1], 1[2]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.36 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 633.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1235.0 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2388.6 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 162 pm
Covalent radius 170±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Scandium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly)
calc. 562 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 15.8 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
10.2 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus 74.4 GPa
Shear modulus 29.1 GPa
Bulk modulus 56.6 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.279
Brinell hardness 750 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-20-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of scandium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
44m2Sc syn 58.61 h IT 0.2709 44Sc
γ 1.0, 1.1, 1.1 44Sc
ε - 44Ca
45Sc 100% 45Sc is stable with 24 neutrons
46Sc syn 83.79 d β 0.3569 46Ti
γ 0.889, 1.120 -
47Sc syn 3.3492 d β 0.44, 0.60 47Ti
γ 0.159 -
48Sc syn 43.67 h β 0.661 48Ti
γ 0.9, 1.3, 1.0 -
t  h  u
· r

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