Tulyo

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Thulium
69Tm
-

Tm

Md
erbiumthuliumytterbium
Appearance
silvery gray
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan thulium, Tm, 69
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en Plantilya:Respell
Element category puthaw nga lantanido
Group, period, block n/a6, f
Standard atomic weight 168.93421
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f13 6s2
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Electron shells of thulium (2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2)
History
Discovery Per Teodor Cleve (1879)
First isolation Per Teodor Cleve (1879)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 9.32 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 8.56 g·cm−3
Melting point 1818 K, 1545 °C, 2813 °F
Boiling point 2223 K, 1950 °C, 3542 °F
Heat of fusion 16.84 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 247 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 27.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 3, 4 (basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.25 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 596.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1160 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2285 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 176 pm
Covalent radius 190±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Thulium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic at 300 K
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 676 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 16.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly)
13.3 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus 74.0 GPa
Shear modulus 30.5 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.213
Vickers hardness 520 MPa
Brinell hardness 471 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-30-4
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of thulium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 0.748 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 1.679 168Er
169Tm 100% 169Tm is stable with 100 neutrons
170Tm syn 128.6 d β 0.968 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β 0.096 171Yb
t  h  u
· r

Ang tulyo (Iningles thulium) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga Tm ug kaiphan nga atomik 69. Ang tulyo mao ang puthaw nga lantanido.

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