↑ 1.01.1Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (1998) Catalog of fishes., Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
↑ 2.02.1Karrer, C. and A. Post (1990) Zeidae., p. 631-633. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
↑Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2001) Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of December 2001., Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in December 2001.
↑Quéro, J.-C. (1986) Zeidae., p. 769-772. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.