Gadolinyo

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Gadolinium
64Gd
-

Gd

Cm
europiumgadoliniumterbium
Appearance
silvery white
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan gadolinium, Gd, 64
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en
Plantilya:Respell
Element category puthaw nga lantanido
Group, period, block n/a6, f
Standard atomic weight 157.25
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Electron shells of gadolinium (2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2)
History
Discovery Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 7.90 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.4 g·cm−3
Melting point 1585 K, 1312 °C, 2394 °F
Boiling point 3546 K, 3273 °C, 5923 °F
Heat of fusion 10.05 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 301.3 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 37.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure (calculated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1836 2028 2267 2573 2976 3535
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, 2, 3 (mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.20 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 593.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1170 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 1990 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 180 pm
Covalent radius 196±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Gadolinium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic/paramagnetic
transition at 293.4 K
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 1.310 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 10.6 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (100 °C, α, poly) 9.4 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2680 m·s−1
Young's modulus (α form) 54.8 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 37.9 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.259
Vickers hardness 570 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-54-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of gadolinium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
152Gd 0.20% 1.08×1014 y α 2.205 148Sm
154Gd 2.18% 154Gd is stable with 90 neutrons
155Gd 14.80% 155Gd is stable with 91 neutrons
156Gd 20.47% 156Gd is stable with 92 neutrons
157Gd 15.65% 157Gd is stable with 93 neutrons
158Gd 24.84% 158Gd is stable with 94 neutrons
160Gd 21.86% >1.3×1021 y ββ 1.729 160Dy
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Ang gadolinyo (Iningles gadolinium) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga Gd ug kaiphan nga atomik 64. Ang gadolinyo mao ang puthaw nga lantanido.

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