Hafnyo

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Hafnium
72Hf
Zr

Hf

Rf
lutetiumhafniumtantalum
Appearance
steel gray
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan hafnium, Hf, 72
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en
Plantilya:Respell
Element category puthaw nga transisyon
Group, period, block 46, d
Standard atomic weight 178.49
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Electron shells of hafnium (2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2)
History
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
Discovery Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
First isolation Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 13.31 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 12 g·cm−3
Melting point 2506 K, 2233 °C, 4051 °F
Boiling point 4876 K, 4603 °C, 8317 °F
Heat of fusion 27.2 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 571 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.73 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2689 2954 3277 3679 4194 4876
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2 (amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.3 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 658.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1440 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2250 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 159 pm
Covalent radius 175±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Hafnium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 331 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 23.0 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 5.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3010 m·s−1
Young's modulus 78 GPa
Shear modulus 30 GPa
Bulk modulus 110 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Mohs hardness 5.5
Vickers hardness 1760 MPa
Brinell hardness 1700 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-58-6
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of hafnium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
172Hf syn 1.87 y ε 0.350 172Lu
174Hf 0.162% 2×1015 y α 2.495 170Yb
176Hf 5.206% 176Hf is stable with 104 neutrons
177Hf 18.606% 177Hf is stable with 105 neutrons
178Hf 27.297% 178Hf is stable with 106 neutrons
178m3Hf syn 31 y IT 2.446 178Hf
179Hf 13.629% 179Hf is stable with 107 neutrons
180Hf 35.1% 180Hf is stable with 108 neutrons
182Hf trace 8.9×106 y β 0.373 182Ta
t  h  u
· r

Ang hafnyo (Iningles hafnium) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga Hf ug kaiphan nga atomik 72. Ang hafnyo mao ang puthaw nga transisyon.

Ang mga gi basihan niini[usba | edit source]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.


Galeriya sa hulagway[usba | edit source]