Plomo

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Lead
82Pb
Sn

Pb

Fl
thalliumleadbismuth
Appearance
metallic gray
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan lead, Pb, 82
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en Plantilya:Respell
Element category post-transition metal
Group, period, block 146, p
Standard atomic weight 207.2
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Electron shells of lead (2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4)
History
Discovery Middle Easterns (7000 BC)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 11.34 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 10.66 g·cm−3
Melting point 600.61 K, 327.46 °C, 621.43 °F
Boiling point 2022 K, 1749 °C, 3180 °F
Heat of fusion 4.77 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 179.5 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.650 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 978 1088 1229 1412 1660 2027
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1

(Amphoteric oxide)

Electronegativity 2.33 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 715.6 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1450.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3081.5 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 175 pm
Covalent radius 146±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 202 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Lead has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 208 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 35.3 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 28.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (annealed)
1190 m·s−1
Young's modulus 16 GPa
Shear modulus 5.6 GPa
Bulk modulus 46 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.44
Mohs hardness 1.5
Brinell hardness 38.3 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-92-1
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of lead
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
204Pb 1.4% >1.4×1017 y α 1.972 200Hg
205Pb syn 1.53×107 y ε 0.051 205Tl
206Pb 24.1% 206Pb is stable with 124 neutrons
207Pb 22.1% 207Pb is stable with 125 neutrons
208Pb 52.4% >2×1019 y α 0.5188 204Hg
210Pb trace 22.3 y α 3.792 206Hg
β 0.064 210Bi
t  h  u
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Ang plomo (Iningles lead) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga Pb ug kaiphan nga atomik 82. Ang plomo mao ang puthaw.

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