Rutenyo

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Ruthenium
44Ru
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
Appearance
silvery white metallic
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan ruthenium, Ru, 44
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en
Plantilya:Respell
Element category puthaw nga transisyon
Group, period, block 85, d
Standard atomic weight 101.07
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d7 5s1
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Electron shells of ruthenium (2, 8, 18, 15, 1)
History
Discovery Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
First isolation Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
Recognized as a distinct element by Karl Ernst Claus (1844)
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.) 12.45 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 10.65 g·cm−3
Melting point 2607 K, 2334 °C, 4233 °F
Boiling point 4423 K, 4150 °C, 7502 °F
Heat of fusion 38.59 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 591.6 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1,[1] -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 710.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1620 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2747 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Ruthenium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 71 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 117 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5970 m·s−1
Young's modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bulk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 6.5
Brinell hardness 2160 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-18-8
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of ruthenium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
96Ru 5.52% >6.7×1016 y β+β+ 2.7188 96Mo
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε - 97Tc
γ 0.215, 0.324 -
98Ru 1.88% 98Ru is stable with 54 neutrons
99Ru 12.7% 99Ru is stable with 55 neutrons
100Ru 12.6% 100Ru is stable with 56 neutrons
101Ru 17.0% 101Ru is stable with 57 neutrons
102Ru 31.6% 102Ru is stable with 58 neutrons
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 0.226 103Rh
γ 0.497 -
104Ru 18.7% 104Ru is stable with 60 neutrons
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 3.54 106Rh
t  h  u
· r

Ang rutenyo (Iningles ruthenium) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga Ru ug kaiphan nga atomik 44. Ang rutenyo mao ang puthaw nga transisyon.

Ang mga gi basihan niini[usba | edit source]

  1. Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data. OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.


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