Toryo

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Thorium
90Th
Ce

Th

(Uqb)
actiniumthoriumprotactinium
Appearance
silvery, often with black tarnish
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan thorium, Th, 90
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en
Plantilya:Respell
Element category aktinido
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], 7, f
Standard atomic weight 232.03806
Electron configuration [Rn] 6d2 7s2
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Electron shells of thorium (2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2)
History
Discovery Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1829)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 11.7 g·cm−3
Melting point 2115 K, 1842 °C, 3348 °F
Boiling point 5061 K, 4788 °C, 8650 °F
Heat of fusion 13.81 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 514 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.230 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2633 2907 3248 3683 4259 5055
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1

(weakly basic oxide)

Electronegativity 1.3 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 587 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1110 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 1930 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 179 pm
Covalent radius 206±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Thorium has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 147 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 54.0 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 11.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2490 m·s−1
Young's modulus 79 GPa
Shear modulus 31 GPa
Bulk modulus 54 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.27
Mohs hardness 3.0
Vickers hardness 350 MPa
Brinell hardness 400 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-29-1
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of thorium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
228Th trace 1.9116 y α 5.520 224Ra
229Th trace 7340 y α 5.168 225Ra
230Th trace 75380 y α 4.770 226Ra
231Th trace 25.5 h β 0.39 231Pa
232Th 100% 1.405×1010 y α 4.083 228Ra
234Th trace 24.1 d β 0.27 234Pa
t  h  u
· r

Ang toryo (Iningles thorium) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga Th ug kaiphan nga atomik 90. Ang toryo mao ang aktinido.

Ang mga gi basihan niini[usba | edit source]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.


Galeriya sa hulagway[usba | edit source]