Gikan sa Wikipedia, ang gawasnong ensiklopedya


clear (diamond) & black (graphite)

Spectral lines of Carbon
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan carbon, C, 6
Pronunciation Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:IPAc-en/data' not found.
Element category wala puthaw
Group, period, block 142, p
Standard atomic weight 12.011(1)
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p2
2, 4
Electron shells of carbon (2, 4)
Discovery Egyptians and Sumerians[1] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[2] (1789)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) amorphous:[3] 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
Sublimation point 3915 K, 3642 °C, 6588 °F
Triple point 4600 K (4327°C), 10800[4][5] kPa
Heat of fusion 117 (graphite) kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J·mol−1·K−1
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3[6], 2, 1[7], 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[8]
Electronegativity 2.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Crystal structure diamond
Carbon has a diamond crystal structure

(diamond, clear)
simple hexagonal
Carbon has a Simple Hexagonal crystal structure

(graphite, black)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[9]
Thermal conductivity 900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond)[10] µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
Young's modulus 1050 (diamond)[10] GPa
Shear modulus 478 (diamond)[10] GPa
Bulk modulus 442 (diamond)[10] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.1 (diamond)[10]
Mohs hardness 10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS registry number 7440-44-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of carbon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP


11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.15 14N
· r

Ang karbon o carbono (Iningles carbon) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga C ug kaiphan nga atomik 6. Ang karbon mao ang wala puthaw.

Ang mga gi basihan niini[usba | edit source]

  1. History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky. Caer.uky.edu. Retrieved on 2008-09-12.
  2. Senese, Fred (200-09-09). Who discovered carbon?. Frostburg State University. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  3. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  5. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  6. Plantilya:Citeweb
  7. Plantilya:Citeweb
  8. Plantilya:Citeweb
  9. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database

Galeriya sa hulagway[usba | edit source]