Nikil

Gikan sa Wikipedia, ang gawasnong ensiklopedya
Nickel
28Ni
-

Ni

Pd
cobaltnickelcopper
Appearance
lustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
A pitted and lumpy piece of silvery metal, with the top surface cut flat
General properties
Name, simbolo, kaiphan nickel, Ni, 28
Pronunciation Plantilya:IPAc-en Plantilya:Respell
Element category puthaw nga transisyon
Group, period, block 104, d
Standard atomic weight 58.6934(4)(2)
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2 3d8 or [Ar] 4s1 3d9 (see text)
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
Electron shells of nickel (2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1)
History
Discovery Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
First isolation Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Physical properties
Phase magahi
Density (near r.t.) 8.908 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.81 g·cm−3
Melting point 1728 K, 1455 °C, 2651 °F
Boiling point 3186 K, 2913 °C, 5275 °F
Heat of fusion 17.48 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 377.5 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.07 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4[1], 3, 2, 1[2], -1
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.91 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 737.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1753.0 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3395 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 124 pm
Covalent radius 124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Nickel has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 69.3 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 90.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 13.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 4900 m·s−1
Young's modulus 200 GPa
Shear modulus 76 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 4.0
Vickers hardness 638 MPa
Brinell hardness 700 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-02-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nickel
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y β+β+ 1.9258 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε - 59Co
60Ni 26.223% 60Ni is stable with 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% 61Ni is stable with 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% 62Ni is stable with 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% 64Ni is stable with 36 neutrons
t  h  u
· r

Ang nikil o nikel (Iningles nickel) mao ang elementong kimiko sa talaang peryodiko nga may simbolo nga Ni ug kaiphan nga atomik 28. Ang nikil mao ang puthaw nga transisyon.

Ang mga gi basihan niini[usba | edit source]

  1. M. Carnes et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. 
  2. S. Pfirrmann et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. 


Galeriya sa hulagway[usba | edit source]