Plantilya:Infobox ruthenium

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silvery white metallic
Kinatibuk-ang mga kinaiya
Ngalan, simbolo, kaiphan ruthenium, Ru, 44
Paglitok /rˈθniəm/
[[Help:Pronunciation respelling key|roo-Plantilya:Smallcaps all-nee-əm]]
Kategoriyang elemento puthaw nga transisyon
Group, period, block 85, d
Gibug-aton sa atomo 101.07
Kontorno sa elektron [Kr] 4d7 5s1
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Electron shells of ruthenium (2, 8, 18, 15, 1)
Pagkadiskobre Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
First isolation Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
Recognized as a distinct element by Karl Ernst Claus (1844)
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.) 12.45 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 10.65 g·cm−3
Melting point 2607 K, 2334 °C, 4233 °F
Boiling point 4423 K, 4150 °C, 7502 °F
Heat of fusion 38.59 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 591.6 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1,[1] -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 710.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1620 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2747 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Crystal structure hexagonal
Ruthenium has a hexagonal crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 71 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 117 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5970 m·s−1
Young's modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bulk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 6.5
Brinell hardness 2160 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-18-8
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of ruthenium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
96Ru 5.52% >6.7×1016 y β+β+ 2.7188 96Mo
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε - 97Tc
γ 0.215, 0.324 -
98Ru 1.88% 98Ru is stable with 54 neutrons
99Ru 12.7% 99Ru is stable with 55 neutrons
100Ru 12.6% 100Ru is stable with 56 neutrons
101Ru 17.0% 101Ru is stable with 57 neutrons
102Ru 31.6% 102Ru is stable with 58 neutrons
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 0.226 103Rh
γ 0.497 -
104Ru 18.7% 104Ru is stable with 60 neutrons
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 3.54 106Rh
· r

Plantilya:Template reference list

  1. Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.